Determination of Heavy Metal Content of Wheat and Cultivation Areas in Van Center and Districts
Keywords:Wheat, heavy metal, soil, lead, nickel, cadmium
This study was conducted to examine the existence of heavy metals in the soil and wheat samples collected from 26 pre-determined agricultural areas in Erciş, Gevaş, Gürpınar, Muradiye and Van Central districts. Samples were taken in 2012 harvest period. In addition to the physical and chemical properties of the samples, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr existence was also examined. Wheat samples were separated in two parts as stalk and grain, heavy metal contents were determined. The heavy metal contents of soil samples includes 0.036-4.253 mg kg-1 Ni; 0.391-1.476 mg kg-1 Pb; 0.0188-0.1364 mg kg-1 Cr and 0.0056-0.0912 mg kg-1 Cd. In the stalk samples, the highest and the lowest heavy metal content was 0.742-1.839 mg kg-1, for nickel; 0.811-2.249 mg kg-1 for chromium; 0.0087-0.1730 mg kg-1 for cadmium and 0072-0.2199 mg kg-1 for lead, respectively. In the grain samples were determined as 0.981-5.413 mg kg-1 for nickel; 0.0256-0.9074 mg kg-1 for chromium; 0.0009-0.5040 mg kg-1 for cadmium and 0.0196-0.3509 mg kg-1 for lead. Consequently, it is revealed that soils of the region do not have heavy metal contamination. The heavy metal contents in the straw and grains of wheat were determined to be the allowable limits in lead, chromium and cadmium, while in nickel it was below the limit values of some locations and above the limit values in some locations.
Alloway, B.J. 1995. Heavy Metals in Soils, Blackie Academic and Professional, Glasgow, UK
Anonim, 2005. Toprak Kirliliği Kontrolü Yönetmeliği. Resmi Gazete, sayı: 25831.
Anonim,2014a.http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=13656. (Erişim tarihi;19.09.2014)
Anonim,2014b.http://www.tarim.gov.tr/SGB/TARYAT/Belgeler/il_yatirim_rehberleri/van.pdf. Erişim tarihi;19.09.2014
Bermudez GMA, Jasanc R, Plác R, Pignata ML 2011. Heavy metal and trace element concentrations in wheat grains: Assessment of potential non-carcinogenic health hazard through their consumption. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 193: 264–271.
Ergül, N., I., Öncel, 2009. Ekmeklik buğdayda (Triticum aestivum L.) ilk gelişme döneminde kök ve gövde büyümesi üzerine bazı ağır metal ve ağır metal-hormon uygulamalarının etkileri. YY Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi, 19(1):11-17.
Gonçalves Jr. A.C., H., Nacke, D., Schwantes, I., André Nava, L., Strey, 2011. Phytoavailability of toxic heavy metals and productivity in wheat cultivated under residual effect of fertilization in soybean culture. Water Air Soil Pollut. DOI 10.1007/s11270-011-0747-3
Gulser, F., E., Eraydın, 2004. Heavy metal pollution ın roadside fields related to motorized traffic. International Soil Congress On 'Natural Resource Management For Sustainable Development' June 7-10, 2004, Erzurum, Turkey.
Harrison, R.M., Laxen D.P.H, Wilson,S.J., 1981. Chemical association of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in street dust and roadside soil.Environ Sci.Thecnol.,15.13;1378-83
Huang, M., Zhou, S., Sun, B., Zhao, Q. 2008. Heavy metal in wheat grain: assessment of potential health risk for inhabitants in kunshan, China, Sci. Total Environ. 405: 54–61.
Kacar ve İnal 2008. Bitki Analizleri. Nobel yayın no:1241, Fen Bilimleri:63 Ankara
Kacar, B., 1984. Bitki besleme uygulama klavuzu. Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Yayınları: 900, Uygulama Klavuzu:214, Ankara, 140s.
Kacar, B., 1994. Bitki ve toprağın kimyasal analizleri: III toprak analizleri. Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Eğitim Araştırma ve Geliştirme Vakfı Yayınları No:3, Ankara, 705s.
Kahvecioğlu, Ö., G., Kartal, A., Güven, S., Timur,2014.http://www.metalurji.org.tr/dergi/dergi136/d136_4753.pdf
Lenn, H., Bopp, M., 1978. Heavy metals in soil and the determination of their availability for plants. Angwandte-Botanik. 61(5-6);467-481.
Lindsay, W.L. and W.A. Norvell, 1978. Develoment of a DTPA Soil Test for Zinc, Iron, Manganese and Copper. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 42:421-428.
Marschner H., 1997. Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Academic Press Limited. London
Öncel, I., Keleş, Y., Üstün, A.S., 2000. Interactive effects of temperature and heavy metal stress on the growth and some biochemical compounds in wheat seedlings. Environmental Pollution, 107, 315-320.
Özbek, H., M. Gök, H. Kaptan, 1995. Toprak Bilimi. Çukurova Üniversitesi Genel Yayın no: 73, Ders Kitapları Yayın no: 16. sf: 508. Adana.
Richard, L.A. 1954. Diagnosis and Imprvement of Saline and Alkaline Soils. Handbook:60, U.S. Dept. Of Agriculture.
Sönmez, F., Çığ, A., 2019. Effects of Increased Vermicompost and Nitrogen-Phosphorus (NP) Applications on the Co, Ni, Cd, and Mo Contents of Hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis L. “Purple Star”). International Journal of Agriculture and Wildlife Science. 5(2): 362 – 371.
Thomas, G.W. 1982. Exchangeable Cations. P. 159-165. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Agronomy Monography No:9, A.S.A.-S.S.S.A., Madison, Winconsin. USA.
Vassilev, A., Lidon, F.C., Matos, M.C., Ramalho, J.C., Yordanov, I. 2002. Photosynthetic performance and content of some nutrients in cadmium-and coppertreated barley plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 25, No. 11, 2343-2360.
Walkey, A. 1947. A Critical Examination of a Rapid Method for Determining Organic Carbon in Soils: Effect of Varations in Digestion Conditions and Inorganic Soil Constiuents. Soil Science, 63: 251-263.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.