Salt Tolerance, Morphological and Anatomical Responses of in vitro Indigofera zollingeriana Miq. Seedling

Abstract views: 159 / PDF downloads: 101


  • Çiğdem Alev ÖZEL Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, Ankara
  • Siti MAESAROH Gazi University, Gazi Faculty of Education, Biology Education Department, Ankara



Abiotic stress, Exogenous hormone, Indigofera, Seed,Salinity


The species belonging to genus Indigofera with high nutritional value and tolerance against abiotic stresses are widely distributed in the tropics to the subtropic areas world over. In this study, two years old stored seeds of I. zollingeriana, a potential forage used in Indonesia, were evaluated for their tolerance to salinity stress. In the first step, the morphology and anatomy of I. zollingeriana seedlings under in vitro salinity stress level of 20-120 mM NaCl were investigated after 14 days. In the second step, the 3 days old seedlings were transferred to several concentrations of NaCl (140-300 mM) to estimate Ld50 (lethal dose). Several concentrations of gibberalic acid (GA3) were applied to the previous estimated Ld50 (228 mM NaCl) medium for alleviating seedlings damage. It was estimated that the increasing concentration of NaCl caused reduction in the evaluated plant growth parameters and changed anatomy of the root and stem cross sections. The 100% mortality of the seedlings was noted after4 weeks on the medium containing 300 mM NaCl. Treatment of seedlings with  <0.25 mg L-1 GA3 +228 mM NaCl (Ld50)   in the culture medium was effective to  reduce root damage for 4 weeks.   Treatment of seedlings with >2.5 mg L-1 GA3 + 228 mM NaCl (Ld50) showed adverse effects in controlling damage by necrosis and blackening of roots and stems.


Abdullah, L. 2012. Prospektif agronomi dan ekofisiologi Indigofera sebagai tanaman pakan berkualitas tinggi. In; S. P. Ginting, B. R. Prawiradipura and N. D. Purwantari (eds). Indigofera sebagai Pakan Ternak, IAARD Press, Jakarta [in Indonesian]. Page: 47-58.

Abdullah, L. 2014. Prospektif agronomi dan ekofisiologi Indigofera zollingeriana sebagai tanaman penghasil hijauan pakan berkualitas tinggi. Pastura 3(2): 79-83. (in Indonesian).

Abdullah, L., Suharlina 2010. Herbage yield and quality of two veg:tative parts of indigofera at different times of first regrowth defoliation, Media Peternakan, 33(1): 44-49.

Abdullah, L., Girsang, R. C., Putra, N. P., Wiryawan, K. G., Permana, I. G. 2016. Viabilitas, intensitas kontaminasi jamur, dan tinggi hipokotil sebagai respon terhadap modifikasi atmosfer dengan injeksi CO2 selama penyimpanan benih Indigofera zollingeriana. In; L. Abdullah, D. A. Astuti, and Suharlina (eds). Bunga Rampai Hasil Riset dan Pengembangan Indigofera zollingeriana. IPB Press, Bogor [in Indonesian]. Page: 6-13.

Akad, H., Ozzambak, M. E. 2013. The effects of Ca application on some stress parameters of Limonium sinuatum under salinity conditions in the greenhouse growing. Journal of Tekirdag Agricultural Faculty, 10(1): 48-58.

Atabayeva, S., Nurmahanova, A., Minocha, S., Ahmetova, A., Kenzhebayeva, S., Aidosov, S. 2013. The effect of salinity on growth and anatomical attributes of barley seedling (Hordeum vulgare L.). African Journal of Biotechnology, 12: 2366-2377.

Australia Agriculture and Food. 2019. Availabne from:

Budaklı Çarpıcı, E., Erdel, B. 2016. Determination of responses of different alfafa (Medicago sativa L.) varieties to salt stress at germination stage. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi, 26(1): 61-67.

Byrt, C. S., Munns, R., Burton, R. A., Gilliham, M., Wege, S. 2018. Root cell wall solutions for crop plants in saline soils. Plant science, 269: 47-55.

Carcamo, H. J., Bustos, M. R., Fernandez, F. E., Bastias, E. I. 2012. Mitigating effect of salicylic acid in the anatomy of the leaf of Zea mays L. lluteno ecotype from the Lluta Valley (Arica-Chile) under NaCl stress. Idesia, 30: 55-63.

Chaves, M. M., Flexas J., Pinheiro C. 2009. Photosynthesis under drought and salt stress: Regulation mechanisms from whole plant to cell. Annals of Botany, 103: 551-560.

Demirbas, A., Balkan, A. (2018). Responses of some triticale varieties to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) priming under salt stress conditions. Journal of Tekirdag Agricultural Faculty, 15(2): 5-13.

Doğru, A., Torlak, E. 2020. Tuz stresi altındaki mısır bitkilerinde eksojen askorbik asit uygulamasının etkileri. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi, 30: 919-927.

Eyidogan, F., Oz, M. T., Yucel, M., H. A. Oktem. Signal transduction of phytohormones under abiotic stresses. In; N. A. Khan, R. Nazar, N. I. Naser, & A. Anju (eds). Phytohormones and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Page: 1-48.

Hassen, A., Rethman, N. F. G., Van Niekerk, W. A., Tjelele, T. J. 2007. Influence of season/year and species on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of five Indigofera accessions. Animal Feed Science Technology 136: 312-322.

Herdiawan, I., Sutedi, E. 2012. Produktivitas tanaman pakan Indigofera sp. pada tingkat cekaman kekeringan dan interval pemangkasan berbeda. Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Science, 17(2): 161-167.

Herdiawan, I., Abdullah, L., Sopandie, D., Karti, P. D. M. H., Hidayati, N. 2013. Respon fisiologis tanaman pakan Indigofera zollingeriana pada berbagai tingkat cekaman kekeringan dan interval pemangkasan. Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Science, 18(1): 54-62.

Iqbal, N., Masood, A., Khan, N. A. 2012. Phytohormones in salinity tolerance: ethylene and gibberellins cross talk. p.77-98. In; N. A. Khan, R. Nazar, N. I. Naser, & A. Anju (eds). Phytohormones and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

James, R. A. Blake, C., Byrt, C. S., Munns, R. 2011. Major genes for Na+ exclusion, Nax1 and Nax2 (wheat HKT1;4 and HKT1;5), decrease Na+ accumulation in bread wheat leaves under saline and waterlogged conditions, Journal of Experimental Botany, 62(8): 2939-2947.

Junghans, U., Polle, A., Düchting, P., Weiler, E., Kuhlman, B., Gruber, F.,… et al. 2006. Adaptation to high salinity in poplar involves changes in xylem anatomy and auxin physiology. Plant Cell Environment, 29: 1519-1531.

Karan, R., Subudhi, P. K. 2012. Approaches to increasing salt tolerance in crop plants. pp. 63-88. In; P. Ahmad and M. N. V. Prasad (eds). Abiotic Stress Responses in Plants: Metabolism, Productivity and Sustainability. Springer Science + Business Media,

Karolinoerita, V., Yusuf, W. A. 2020. Salinisasi lahan dan permasalahannya di Indonesia (Land salinization and ıts problems in Indonesia). Jurnal Sumberdaya Lahan 14(2), 91-99.

Kim, T. H., Böhmer, M., Hu, H., Nishimura, N., Schroeder, J. I. 2010. Guard cell signal transduction network: advances in understanding abscisic acid, CO2, and Ca2+ signaling. The Annual Review of Plant Biology, 61: 561-591.

Liu, X., Hou, X. 2018. Antagonistic regulation of ABA and GA in metabolism and signaling pathways. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9: 251.

Maesaroh, S., Demirbağ, N. Ş. 2020. Pretreatment effect on amelioration of seed germination of zollinger’s indigo ( Indigofera zollingeriana Miq.). Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi, 30(1): 1-8.

Maesaroh, S., Özel, Ç. A. 2019. Improving in vitro seed sprouting on legume of Indigofera zollingeriana stored seed. Balıkesir Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 21(2): 791-803.

Moghaddam, S. S., Rahimi, A., Pourakbar, L., Jangjoo, F. 2020. Seed Priming with salicylic acid improves germination and growth of Lathyrus sativus L. under salinity stress. Yüzüncü Yil University Journal of Agricultural Science, 30(1): 68-79.

Morgan, P. W. 1990. Effects of abiotic stresses on plant hormone systems. In; R. G. Alscher and J. R. Cumming (eds). Stress Responses in Plants: Adaptation and Acclimation Mechanism. New York: Wiley-Liss.

Mulyani, A., Rachman, A., Dairah, A. 2010. Penyebaran lahan masam, potensi dan ketersediaannya untuk pengembangan pertanian dalam Prosiding Simposium Nasional Pendayagunaan Tanah Masam. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanah dan Agroklimat. Bogor. Hal 23-34. [in Indonesia].

Munns, R., Tester, M. 2008. Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 59: 651-681.

Nadir, M., Anugrah, M. J., Khaerani, P. I. 2018. Salt salinity tolerance on nursery of Indigofera zollingeriana. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, page 1-8.

Parida, A. K., Veerabathini, S. K., Kumari, A., Agarwal, P. K. 2016. Physiological, anatomical and metabolic implications of salt tolerance in the halophyte Salvadora persica under hydroponic culture condition. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7: 351.

Rahnama, A. James, R. A., Poustini, K., Munns, R. 2010. Stomatal conductance as a screen for osmotic stress tolerance in durum wheat growing in saline soil. Functional Plant Biology, 37(3): 255-263.

Skerman, P.J. (1982). Tropical forage legumes, Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome.

Tanveer, M., Shabala, S. 2018. Targeting redox regulatory mechanisms for salinity stress tolerance in crops. In; V. Kumar, S. Wani, P. Suprasanna, L. S. Tran (eds). Salinity Responses and Tolerance in Plants, vol. 1. Springer, Cham. Page: 213-234.

Wakeel, A. 2013. Potassium–sodium interactions in soil and plant under saline‐sodic conditions. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 176(3): 344-354.

Zhu, G., An, L., Jiao, X., Chen, X., Zhou, G., McLaughlin, N. 2019. Effects of gibberellic acid on water uptake and germination of sweet sorghum seeds under salinity stress. Chilean journal of agricultural research, 79(3): 4.




How to Cite

Çiğdem Alev ÖZEL, & Siti MAESAROH. (2021). Salt Tolerance, Morphological and Anatomical Responses of in vitro Indigofera zollingeriana Miq. Seedling . ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 5(4), 949–957.