Biochemical and Molecular Evaluation of Some Tomato Hybrids in Salt Stress At The Growth Stage

Abstract views: 144 / PDF downloads: 82




hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation, proline, salt stress, tomato


Growing stages of plants are the most sensitive phase to abiotic stress which leads to decrease in yield. The object of this study was to evaluate the biochemical and molecular properties of seven tomato cultivars and to observe their responses to salinity during growth stages. Greenhouse experiment was performed to study differences in genotypes response to salinity with four doses (50 mM, 100 mM, 150 mM and 200 mM). Differences in growth parameters, proline accumulation, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide were tested in order to put forward the relative tolerance or sensitivity of tomato cultivars. These results were also supported by expression using semi quantitative RT-PCR of two stress related genes, SIVOZ1, and SIWRKY8. Overall results demonstrated that, all evaluated parameters increased with 200 mM NaCI treatment for all cultivars. Although the effects of salinity stress differentiated in different genotypes, our results provided some evidence that Seyran, Ciko and Indigo Rose Black tomato cultivars had higher salt tolerance potential than rest of the cultivars. This is the first report of evaluation of Turkish tomato hybrids based on biochemical and molecular data and results could be useful for determination of future breeding strategies for salt tolerance in tomato.


Abdelgawad, K.F., El-Mogy, M.M., Mohamed, M.I.A., Garchery, C., Stevens, R.G. 2019. Increasing ascorbic acid content and salinity tolerance of cherry tomato plants by suppressed expression of the ascorbate oxidase gene. Agronomy 9: 51.

Akbudak, M.A., Filiz, E. 2019. Whirly (Why) transcription factors in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.): genome-wide identification and transcriptional profiling under drought and salt stresses. Molecular Biology Reports 46: 4139-4150.

Akça, E., Aydın, M., Kapur, S., Kume, T., Nagano, T., Watanabe, T., Çilek, A., Zorlu, K. 2020. Long-term monitoring of soil salinity in a semi-arid environment of Turkey. Catena 193.

Ali, M.B., Hahn, E.J., Paek, K.Y. 2005. Effects of temperature on oxidative stress defence systems, lipid peroxidation and lipoxygenase activity in Phalaenopsis. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry.

Amjad, M., Ameen, N., Murtaza, B., Imran, M., Shahid Abbas, G., Naeem, MA., Jacobsen, S.E. 2019. Comparative physiological and biochemical evaluation of salt and nickel tolerance mechanisms in two contrasting tomato genotypes. Physiologia Plantarum 168: 27-37.

Ashraf, M., Ali, Q. 2008. Relative membrane permeability and activities of some antioxidant enzymes as the key determinants of salt tolerance in canola (Brassica napus L.). Environmental and Experimental Botany 63: 266-273.

Bai, Y., Sunarti, S., Kissoudis, C., Visser, RGF., van der Linden, CG. 2018. The Role of Tomato WRKY Genes in Plant Responses to Combined Abiotic and Biotic Stresses. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9.

Bakshi, M., Oelmüller, R. 2014. WRKY transcription factors: Jack of many trades in plants. Plant Signaling & Behavior 9: e27700.

Bates, L.S., Waldren, R.P., Teare, I.D. 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant Soil 39: 205-207.

Chakma, R., Biswas, A., Saekong, P., Ullah, H., Datta, A. 2021. Foliar application, and seed priming of salicylic acid affect growth, fruit yield, and quality of grape tomato under drought stress. Scientia Horticulturae 280: 109904.

Dasgan, H.Y., Aktas, H., Abak, K., Cakmak, I. 2002. Determination of screening techniques to salinity tolerance in tomatoes and investigation of genotype responses. Plant Science 163: 695-703.

De la Torre-González, A., Montesinos-Pereira, D., Blasco B, Ruiz, J.M. 2018. Influence of the proline metabolism and glycine betaine on tolerance to salt stress in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) commercial genotypes. Journal of Plant Physiology 231: 329-336.

Feng Gao, Y., Kai Liu, J., Ming Yang, F., Yan Zhang, G., Wang, D., Zhang, L., Bin Ou, Y., An Yao, Y. 2019. The WRKY transcription factor WRKY8 promotes resistance to pathogen infection and mediates drought and salt stress tolerance in Solanum lycopersicum. Physiologia Plantarum 168: 98-117.

FAO. 2019. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Available online: (Accessed on 5 February 2021).

Furtuna, G.B., Tıpırdamaz, R. 2010. Physiological and antioxidant response of three cultivars of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) to salinity. Turkish Journal of Biology 34: 287-296.

Ganie, S.A., Ahammed, G.J., Wani, S.H. 2020. Vascular plant one zinc-finger (VOZ) transcription factors: novel regulators of abiotic stress tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 67: 799–807.

Gharsallah, C., Fakhfakh, H., Grubb, D., Gorsane, F. 2016. Effect of salt stress on ion concentration, proline content, antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression in tomato cultivars. AoB Plants 8: plw055.

Hossain, S. 2019. Present Scenario of Global Salt Affected Soils, its Management and Importance of Salinity Research. International Research Journal of Biological Sciences :1.

Hou, X., Zhang, W., Du, T., Kang, S., Davies, W.J. 2020. Responses of water accumulation and solute metabolism in tomato fruit to water scarcity and implications for main fruit quality variables. Journal of Experimental Botany 71: 1249-1264.

Irfan Dar, M., Irfan Naikoo, M., Rehman, F., Naushin, F., Ahmad Khan, F. 2016. Proline Accumulation in Plants: Roles in Stress Tolerance and Plant Development. In: Iqbal N., Nazar R., A. Khan N. (eds) Osmolytes and Plants Acclimation to Changing Environment: Emerging Omics Technologies., Springer, New Delhi, 2016.

Junglee, S., Urban, L., Sallanon, H., Lopez-Lauri, F. 2014. Optimized assay for hydrogen peroxide determination in plant tissue using potassium iodide. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry 5:730–736.

Karan, R., Subudhi, P.K. 2012. A stress inducible SUMO conjugating enzyme gene of a grass halophyte Spartina alterniflora (SaSce9) enhances salinity and drought stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. BMC Plant Biology 12: 187.

Katsuhara, M., Otsuka, T, Ezaki. B, 2005. Salt stress-induced lipid peroxidation is reduced by glutathione S-transferase, but this reduction of lipid peroxides is not enough for a recovery of root growth in Arabidopsis. Plant Science 169: 369-373.

Koguchi, M., Yamasak, K., Hirano, T., Sato, MH. 2017. Vascular plant one-zinc-finger protein 2 is localized both to the nucleus and stress granules under heat stress in Arabidopsis. Plant Signaling & Behavior 12: e1295907.

Kong-ngern, K., Bunnag, S., Theerakulpisut, P. 2012. Proline, Hydrogen Peroxide, Membrane Stability and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity as Potential Indicators for Salt Tolerance in Rice (Oryza sativa L.). International Journal of Botany 8: 54-65.

Maggio, A., De Pascale, S., Angelino, G., Ruggiero, C., Barbieri, G. 2004. Physiological response of tomato to saline irrigation in long-term salinized soils. European Journal of Agronomy 21: 149-159.

Meisel, L., Fonseca, B., Gonzalez, S., Baeza-Yates, R., Cambiazo, V., Campos, R., Gonzalez, M., Orellana, A., Retamales, J., Silva, H. 2005. A rapid and efficient method for purifying high quality total RNA from peaches (Prunus persica) for functional genomics analyses. Biological Research 38(1):8388.

Negrao, S., Schmockel, SM., Tester, M. 2017. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress. Annals of Botany 119: 1-11.

Niu, L., Liao, W. 2016. Hydrogen peroxide signalling in plant development and abiotic responses: crosstalk with nitric oxide and calcium. Frontiers in Plant Science 7: 230.

Parihar, P., Singh, S., Singh, R., Singh, VP., Prasad, SM. 2015. Effect of salinity stress on plants and its tolerance strategies: a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22: 4056-4075.

Pokalsky, AR., Hiatt, WR., Ridge, N. 1989. Structure and expression of elongation factor 1α in tomato. Nucleic Acids Research 17: 4661- 4673.

Pouya, A.K. 2015. Changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes and photosynthetic attributes in triticale (Triticosecale Wittmack) genotypes in response to long-term salt stress at two distinct growth stages. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 37: 72.

Prasad, KVSK., Xing, D, Reddy, ASN. 2018. Vascular Plant One-Zinc-Finger (VOZ) Transcription Factors Are Positive Regulators of Salt Tolerance in Arabidopsis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19(12): 3731.

Rahneshan, Z., Nasibi, F., Moghadam, AA. 2018. Effects of salinity stress on some growth, physiological, biochemical parameters and nutrients in two pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) rootstocks. Journal of Plant Interactions.

Saed-Moucheshi, A., Razi, H., Dadkhodaie, A., Ghodsi, M., Dastfal, M. 2019. Association of biochemical traits with grain yield in triticale genotypes under normal irrigation and drought stress conditions. Aust J Crop Sci., 13(2): 272-281.

Szabados, L, Savoure, A. 2010. Proline: a multifunctional amino acid. Trends in Plant Science, 15(2): 89-97

Siddique, A., Kandpal, G., Kumar, P. 2018. Proline accumulation and its defensive role under diverse stress condition in plants: An Overview. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology 12: 1655-1659.

Soltabayeva, A., Ongaltay, A., Omondi, JO., Srivastava, S. 2021. Morphological, Physiological and Molecular Markers for Salt-Stressed Plants. Plants 10: 243.

Uluisik, S., Oney-Birol, S. 2021. Physiological and biochemical responses of 13 cultivars of triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) to Salt Stress. Gesunde Pflanzen 73: 565–574.

Wang, W.R., Liang, J.H., Wang, G.F., Sun, M.X., Peng, F.T., Xia, S.Y. 2020. Overexpression of PpSnRK1α in tomato enhanced salt tolerance by regulating ABA signaling pathway and reactive oxygen metabolism. BMC Plant Biology 128.

Yang, H., Shukla, M.K., Mao, X., Kang, S., Du, T. 2019. Interactive regimes of reduced irrigation and salt stress depressed tomato water use efficiency at leaf and plant scales by affecting leaf physiology and stem sap flow. Frontiers in Plant Science 10.

Yazar, A., İnce Kaya, Ç. 2014. A new crop for salt affected and dry agricultural areas of turkey: quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). Turkish Journal of Agricultural and Natural Sciences, 2.

Zhang, P., Senge, M., Dai, Y. 2017. Effect of salinity stress at different growth stages on tomato growth, yield, and water-use efficiency. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 48: 624-634.

Zhu, J., Fan, Y., Shabala, S., Li, C., Lv, C., Guo, B., Xu, R., Zhou, M. 2020. Understanding mechanisms of salinity tolerance in barley by proteomic and biochemical analysis of near-isogenic lines. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21: 1516.




How to Cite

ULUIŞIK, S., KABAS, A., & CELIK, I. (2022). Biochemical and Molecular Evaluation of Some Tomato Hybrids in Salt Stress At The Growth Stage. ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 6(3), 500–510.