Bulblet Regeneration of Endemic Muscari adilii Güner & Duman on MS Media Having 6-Benzylaminopurine-α-Naphthaleneacetic

Abstract views: 65 / PDF downloads: 40





Aseptic conditions, twin scales, in vitro, bulblet explant, induced primary bulb


Muscari adilii Güner & Duman is an endemic and threatened (CR) bulbous plant species,  as is suggested by IUCN categorisation; therefore its export is prohibited. There is a need to protect this plant by developing ex-vitro and in vitro propagation techniques and protocols.  Developing of these methodologies will conserve this species and prevent its extinction from nature. This study, aimed to develop a regeneration protocol for M. adilii on agar-hardened 1 × MS medium having different concentrations of benzylaminopurine (BAP)-α-naphthaleneacetic (NAA) using twin bulb scales and induced primary bulblets under in vitro conditions. The best medium for bulblet regeneration on twin scales was determined as 1 × MS medium having 17.76 μ Mol BAP- 2.685 or 10.74 μMol NAA (two combinations) obtaining 15.75 and 14.18 bulblets per explant in the same order. When the induced primary bulbs were used as explants, they regenerated 4.25 secondary bulbs on 1 × MS medium having 17.76 μMol BAP- 2.685 μMol NAA along with the increase in diameter of the induced primary bulbs. The maximum diameter of 0.39 cm of induced primary bulbs was noted on 1 × MS medium having 4.44 μMol BAP-5.37 or 10.74 μMol NAA. All of the bulbs were rooted in the regeneration medium, they were followed by successful transfer to the pots for acclimatization. The results of the study meets the aims of the study and it is possible to regenerate these bulbs for commercial propagation.


Azad, M.A.K., Amin, M.N. 2012. Effects of hormonal and basal nutrient medium on in vitro regeneration of an ornamental plant-Muscari armeniacum Leichtlin. ex Baker. Plant Tissue Culture and Biotechnology, 22(2): 113-126.

Bae, H., Ahn, H., Park, S., Yue, W., Jung, W., Chang, Y., Choi, S. 2000. Effect of scaling time and scale position on bulblet formation in scaling of Muscari armeniacum 'Early Giant'. Journal of the Korean Society for Horticultural Science, 41(1): 93-95.

Bürün, B. 2021. The use of bıotechnology in conservation of plant biodiversity and studies in Turkey. Eskişehir Technical University Journal of Science and Technology C-Life Sciences and Biotechnology, 10(1): 1-16.

Chawla, S.L., Momin, K.C., Pawar, R.D., Kumari, K., Patil, S. 2020. Traditional Bulbous Plants. Floriculture and Ornamental Plants, 1-43.

Deswiniyanti, N.W., Lestari, N.K.D. 2020. In vitro propagation of Lilium longiflorum Bulbs using NAA and BAP plant growth regulator treatment. KnE Life Sciences. IC-BIOLIS The 2019 International Conference on Biotechnology and Life Sciences, pp. 32-45.

Eker, İ. 2012. beysümbülü. Şu sitede: Bizimbitkiler (2013).http://www. bizimbitkiler.org.tr>, (Access Date:29.06.2022).

Ekim, T., Koyuncu, M., Vural, M., Duman, H., Aytaç, Z., Adıgüzel, N. 2000. Türkiye Bitkileri Kırmızı Kitabı, 100. Yıl Üniversitesi ve Türkiye Tabiatını Koruma Derneği, Ankara.

Eroğlu, H. 2020. Morphology, palinology and seed surface researches on the taxa of genus Muscari Mill. (Asparagaceae) Spreads in Turkey, Ph. D. Thesis, Van Yüzüncü Yıl University, Institute of Science, Van, Turkey.

Faruq, M.O., Shahinozzaman, M., Azad, M., Amin, M. 2019. In vitro propagation of a cut flower variety Muscari armeniacum Leichtl. ex Bak. through direct bulblet proliferation pathways. Journal of Ornamental Plants, 9(2): 105-114.

Fida, A. 2020. In vitro propagation of Muscari neglectum Guss. widely grown in the natural flora of Van region, M. Sc. Thesis, Van YüzüncüYıl University, Institute of Natural and Applied Sciences, Van, Turkey.

Güner, B., Duman, H. 1999. A new species of Muscari Miller (Liliaceae) from central Anatolia. Karaca Arboretum Magazine, 5(2): 59-66.

Karamian, R., Ranjbar, M. 2011. Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration from protoplast culture of Muscari neglectum Guss. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(22): 4602-4607.

Karaoğlu, C. 2010. Bulbous plants and in vitro micropropagation. Journal of Central Research Institute for Field Crops, 19(1-2): 24-29.

Kılıçaslan, N., Dönmez, Ş. 2016. Utilization of bulbous plants in landscape architecture growing in Lakes Region. Turkish Journal of Forestry, 17(1): 73-82.

Kromer, K. 1989. The effect of light conditions on regeneration and level of endogenous growth regulators in Muscari racemosum L./Mill. bulb-scale sections cultured in vitro. Acta Horticulture (ISHS) 251:173-182.

Kromer, K.D. 1985. Regeneration of some monocotyledonous plants from subterranean organs in vitro. Acta Agrobotanica 38(2):65-87.

Mirici, S., Parmaksız, İ., Özcan, S., Sancak, C., Uranbey, S., Sarıhan, E. O., Arslan, N. 2005. Efficient in vitro bulblet regeneration from immature embryos of endangered Sternbergia fischeriana. Plant cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 80(3): 239-246.

Mulholland, D.A., Schwikkard, S.L., Crouch, N.R. 2013. The chemistry and biological activity of the Hyacinthaceae. Natural Product Reports, 30: 1165-1210.

Murashige, T., Skoog, F. 1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with 277 tobacco cultures. Physiology Plantarum. 15: 473-497.

Nakano, M., Tanaka, S., Kagami, S., Saito, H. 2005. Plantlet regeneration from protoplasts of Muscari armeniacum Leichtl. ex Bak. Plant biotechnology, 22(3): 249-251.

Nasırcılar, A.G., Mirici, S., Karagüzel, Ö, Eren, Ö., Baktir, İ. 2011. In vitro propagation of endemic and endangered from different explant types. Turkish Journal of Botany, 35: 37-43.

Onat, İ. 2012. An investigation on the seasonal plants and bulbed plants applications in the designation of the public parks and gardens. M. Sc. Thesis, Istanbul University, Institute of Science and Technology, İstanbul, Turkey.

Ozel, C.A., Khawar, K.M., Unal, F. 2007. In vitro axillary bulblet regeneration of Turkish yellow grape hyacinth (Muscari macrocarpum Sweet) from twin scale explants. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 3(6): 924-929.

Ozel, Ç.A. 2008. In vitro bulblet production of dissimilar Muscari species, Ph. D. Thesis, Gazi University, Institue of Science and Technology, Ankara, Turkey.

Ozel, C.A., Khawar, K.M., Arslan, O., Unal, F. 2009. In vitro propagation of the golden grape hyacinth (Muscari macrocarpum Sweet) from twin scale explants. Propagation of Ornamental Plants, 9(4): 169-175.

Ozel, C.A., Khawar, K.M., Unal, F. 2015. Factors affecting efficient in vitro micropropagation of Muscari muscarimi Medikus using twin bulb scale. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 22(2): 132-138.

Ozel, Ç.A., Ünal, F. 2016. Efficient in vitro clonal propagation of Muscari neglectum Guss. Ex. Ten using thidiazuron-α naphthalene acetic acid. Turkish Journal of Agriculture-Food Science and Technology, 4(12), 1173-1178.

Ozel, Ç.A., Ünal, F. 2021. In vitro Regeneration of Muscari racemosum Mill. Using Twin Bulb Scales, Primary Bulbs, and Leaf Bases. ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 5(3): 714-727.

Park, S., Ahn, H., Jung, W., Chang, Y., Kim, S., Park, I., Choi, S. 2000. Effect of leaf order and position on bulblet formation in leaf cutting of Muscari armeniacum 'Early Giant'. Journal of the Korean Society for Horticultural Science, 41(1): 90-92.

Peck, D.E., Cuming, B.G. 1986. Beneficial effects of activated charcoal on bulblet production in cultures of Muscari armeniacum. Plant cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 6: 9-14.

Resmi gazete, 2022. https://www.resmigaze te.gov.tr/eskiler/2021/12/20211231-10.htm (Accesed: 10.04.2022).

Radhika, R., Rajendran, R., Prabha, A. L. 2020. High Frequency Direct Shoot Multiplication from Dipcadi montanum Bulb. Alochana Chakra Journal, 9(5): 2367- 2373.

Roya, K., Atiyeh, S., Massoud, R. 2011. Evidence of somatic embryogenesis for plantlet regeneration in Muscari neglectum Guss. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(14): 3247-3251.

Seyidoğlu, N. 2009. Researches on propagation and use of some native geophtes in landscape design. Ph. D. Thesis, İstanbul University, Institue of Science and Technology, İstanbul, Turkey.

Snedecor, G.W., Cochran, W.G. 1967. Statistical Methods. The Iowa State Univ. Press, Iowa. USA. P. 327-329.

Suzuki, S., Nakano, M. 2001. Organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis from callus cultures in Muscari armeniacum Leichtl. ex Bak. In vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant, 37(3): 382-387.

Şentürk, M., Binzet, R. 2021. Some monocotyle endemic plants with the potential of being an ornamental plant in Mersin. Euroasia Journal of Mathematics, Engineering, Natural & Medical Sciences, 8(16): 68-78.

Teixeira da Silva, J. A., Dobránszki, J. 2016. Tissue culture of Muscari species: present achievements and future perspectives. Rendiconti Lincei, 27(3): 427-441.

Uranbey, S. 2010a. In vitro bulblet regeneration from immature embryos of Muscari azureum. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(32): 5121-5125.

Uranbey, S. 2010b. Stimulating effects of different basal media and cytokinine types on regeneration of endemic and endangered Muscari aucheri. Archives of Biological Sciences. 62(3): 663-667.

Uzun, S., Parmaksiz, I., Uranbey, S., Mirici, S., Sarıhan, E. O., İpek, A., Özcan, S. 2014. In vitro micropropagation from immature embryos of the endemic and endangered Muscari muscarimi Medik. Turkish Journal of Biology, 38(1): 83-88.

Vaziri, P.A., Uranbey, S., Sancak, C. 2014. Efficient in vitro micropropagation for the conservation of endemic and endangered aucher-eloy grape hyacinth [Muscari aucheri (Boiss.) Baker]. Journal of Applied Biological Sciences, 8(1): 80-83.

Xudong, H., Ko, J., Choi, J.R., Kim, H.M., Kim, M.J., Choi, S.R., Kim, H.S. (2006). Somatic embryogenesis from various parts of Muscari comosum var. plumosum. Korean Journal of Plant Resources, 19(3): 427-431.

Yıldırım, H. 2022. A Systematic Approach to Some Genera (Scilla, Puschkinia, Chionodoxa, Prospero, Muscari and Bellevalia) in the Asparagaceae. Herbarium Turcicum, (1): 1-14.

Yıldırım, Ö., Altun, B. 2021. The effects of different sowing times and stratification times on germination, and effects of different growing environments on bulb formation in Keşişbaşı (Muscari azureum Fenzl) seeds. Akademik Ziraat Dergisi, 10(2): 227-234.

Yücesan, B.B., Cicek, F., Gürel, E. 2014. Somatic embryogenesis and encapsulation of immature bulblets of an ornamental species, grape hyacinths (Muscari armeniacum Leichtlin ex Baker). Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 38(5): 716-722.




How to Cite

ÖZEL, Çiğdem A., & ÜNAL, F. (2022). Bulblet Regeneration of Endemic Muscari adilii Güner & Duman on MS Media Having 6-Benzylaminopurine-α-Naphthaleneacetic. ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 6(4), 797–805. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7347860