Investigation of Accumulation and Distribution of Chromium (Cr) Element Among Plant Organs in Red Pepper

Abstract views: 65 / PDF downloads: 28




Red pepper, heavy metal, chromium


This study was carried out in the greenhouses of Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University (KSU) Faculty of Agriculture in order to determine the accumulation and distribution of chromium (Cr) element in plant organs in red pepper. In the research, seedlings of the "Maraş-1" red pepper variety obtained from the Doğu Akdeniz Geçit Kuşağı Agricultural Research Institute were used. The study (5 doses Cr element x 3 replications) was established according to a randomized plot design and was carried out for 2 years in 2017-2018. The administered chromium (Cr) doses are 0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 mg kg-1. At the end of the vegetation period (160 days), Cr concentration was measured in the root, stem, leaf, fruit flesh and seeds of the plant to determine the accumulation in the plant. In addition, the Cr concentration remaining in the soil after harvest was determined by the DTPA (Diethylene Triamine Pentaacetic Acid) method. In the average results of chromium application in 2017 and 2018, the accumulation (mg kg-1) in all plant organs (root, stem, leaf, fruit flesh, seed) was found to be statistically very significant (p<0.01). In treatment of the highest two doses of 60 and 120 mg kg-1 Cr, fruit set did not occur in the pepper plant. Cr in the soil accumulated mainly in the roots of the plant, but transferred to other organs (root>stem>leaf>seed>fruit pulp). The Cr concentration in the fruit flesh and seed, which is the consumed part of the plant, exceeded the permissible limit value (WHO) at all applied doses.


Ahmed, F., Fakhruddin, A.N.M., Fardous, Z., Chowdhury, M.A.Z., Rahman, M. M., Kabir, M.M., 2021. Accumulation and translocation of chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) in Chilli plants (Capsicum annuum L.) grown on artificially contaminated soil. Nature Environment & Pollution Technology, 20(1).

Antonious, G.F., 2016. Distribution of seven heavy metals among hot pepper plant parts. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, 51(5): 309-315.

Aytop, Y., Akbay, C., 2018. Baharatlık kırmızı biber (maraş biberi) üretiminin ekonomik analizi. Türk Tarım ve Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi, 5(4): 455-464.

Bukhari, S.A.H., Wang, R., Wang, W., Ahmed, I.M., Zheng, W., Cao, F., 2016. Genotype-dependent effect of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide on chromium-induced changes in ultrastructure and physicochemical traits in tobacco seedlings. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23(18): 18229-18238.

Choudhary, S.P., Kanwar, M., Bhardwaj, R., Gupta, B.D., Gupta, R.K., 2011. Epibrassinolide ameliorates Cr (VI) stress via influencing the levels of indole-3-acetic acid, abscisic acid, polyamines and antioxidant system of radish seedlings. Chemosphere, 84(5): 592-600.

Christou, A., Georgiadou, E.C., Zissimos, A.M., Christoforou, I.C., Christofi, C., Neocleous, D., Fotopoulos, V., 2021. Uptake of hexavalent chromium by tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants and mediated effects on their physiology and productivity, along with fruit quality and safety. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 189: 104564.

FAOSTAT, 2020. Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations. FAOSTAT Statistics Database (Erişim Tarihi: 09.05.2022).

Fendorf, S., La Force, M.J., Li, G., 2004. Temporal changes in soil partitioning and bioaccessibility of arsenic, chromium, and lead. Journal of Environmental Quality, 33(6): 2049-2055.

Gill, R.A., Zang, L., Ali, B., Farooq, M.A., Cui, P., Yang, S., Zhou, W., 2015. Chromium-induced physio-chemical and ultrastructural changes in four cultivars of Brassica napus L. Chemosphere, 120: 154-164.

Golovatyj, S.E., Bogatyreva, E.N., 1999. Effect of levels of chromium content in a soil on its distribution in organs of corn plants. Soil Research and Use of Fertilizers, 197-204.

Gropper, S.S., Smith, J.L., 2012. Advanced nutrition and human metabolism. Cengage Learning.

Howe, J.A., Loeppert, R.H., DeRose, V.J., Hunter, D.B., Bertsch, P.M., 2003. Localization and speciation of chromium in subterranean clover using XRF, XANES, and EPR spectroscopy. Environmental Science & Technology, 37(18): 4091-4097.

Hua, Y., Clark, S., Ren, J., Sreejayan, N., 2012. Molecular mechanisms of chromium in alleviating insulin resistance. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 23(4): 313-319.

Kabata-Pendias, A., 2011. Trace elements in soils and plants. 4th edn CRC Press. Boca Raton.

Kahvecioğlu, Ö., Kartal Şireli, G., Güven, A., Timur, S.İ., 2003. Metallerin çevresel etkileri I. Tmmob Metalurji Mühendisleri Odası Metalurji Dergisi, 136: 47-53.

Karimah, S., Saefumillah, A., Maimulyanti, A., 2021. Bioavailability of chromium in spiked soil by sequential extraction and its absorption in Amaranthus hybridus. In AECon 2020: Proceedings of The 6th Asia-Pacific Education And Science Conference, 19-20 December, Purwokerto, Indonesia pp. 195.

Lindsay, W.L., Norvell, W., 1978. Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 42(3): 421-428.

Mertz, W., Angino, E.E., Cannon, H.L., Hambidge, K.M., Voors, A.W., 1974. Chromium in geochemistry and the envirionment.

Mikuła, W., Indeka, L., 1997. Heavy metals in allotment gardens close to an oil refinery in Płock. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 96(1): 61-71.

Moral, R., Pedreno, J.N., Gomez, I., Mataix, J., 1995. Effects of chromium on the nutrient element content and morphology of tomato. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 18(4): 815-822.

Nunes, R.R., Pigatin, L.B.F., Oliveira, T.S., Bontempi, R.M., Rezende, M.O.O., 2018. Vermicomposted tannery wastes in the organic cultivation of sweet pepper: growth, nutritive value and production. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, 7(4): 313-324.

Shanker, A.K., Djanaguiraman, M., Venkateswarlu, B., 2009. Chromium interactions in plants: current status and future strategies. Metallomics, 1(5): 375-383.

Sharma, A., Kapoor, D., Wang, J., Shahzad, B., Kumar, V., Bali, A.S., Yan, D., 2020. Chromium bioaccumulation and its impacts on plants: an overview. Plants, 9(1): 100.

Thampi, P.S.S., 2003. A glimpse of the world trade in Capsicum. Capsicum: the genus Capsicum. Taylor and Francis, London, 16-24.

Tiwari, K.K., Dwivedi, S., Singh, N.K., Rai, U. N., Tripathi, R.D., 2009. Chromium (VI) induced phytotoxicity and oxidative stress in pea (Pisum sativum L.): biochemical changes and translocation of essential nutrients. Journal of Environmental Biology, 30(3): 389-394.

Trebolazabala, J., Maguregui, M., Morillas, H., García-Fernandez, Z., de Diego, A., Madariaga, J.M., 2017. Uptake of metals by tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) and distribution inside the plant: field experiments in Biscay (Basque Country). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 59: 161-169.

TÜIK, 2021. Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. (Erişim tarihi 09.05.2022).

Vernay, P., Gauthier-Moussard, C., Jean, L., Bordas, F., Faure, O., Ledoigt, G., Hitmi, A., 2008. Effect of chromium species on phytochemical and physiological parameters in Datura innoxia. Chemosphere, 72(5): 763-771.

WHO (World Health Organization). 1996. Trace elements in human nutrition and health. World Health Organization.

Zayed, A., Lytle, C.M., Qian, J.H., Terry, N., 1998. Chromium accumulation, translocation and chemical speciation in vegetable crops. Planta, 206(2): 293-299.

Zeng, F., Qiu, B., Ali, S., Zhang, G., 2010. Genotypic differences in nutrient uptake and accumulation in rice under chromium stress. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 33(4): 518-528.

Zengin, F.K., 2006. Fasulye fidelerin (Phasoelus vulgaris L. cv. Strike) kök, gövde ve yaprak büyümesi üzerine nikel (Ni+2) ve krom'un (Cr+3) etkileri. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi, 16(1): 49-56.



How to Cite

İNCİ, H. Şeyma, & AKINCI, S. (2023). Investigation of Accumulation and Distribution of Chromium (Cr) Element Among Plant Organs in Red Pepper. ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 7(3), 558–571.