Characterization of Surface and Groundwater Resources in Yüksekova Basin

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Water pollution, nitrate, phosphate, yüksekova, domestic wastes, animal production


Excessive discharge of nitrate and phosphate into water sources leads to eutrophication of surface waters such as rivers and lakes and posing a threat to human health and aquatic life. This study was conducted to determine the nutrient loads of groundwater and surface water resources in the Yüksekova basin, which has the most valuable agricultural lands for Hakkari province and Nehil Reed, where various ecosystem services are produced for the whole region, to identify the sources of pollution if threshold values are exceeded and to develop solutions. For this purpose, water samples were collected from 51 points including streams, creeks, artesian wells, natural fountains and boreholes in the study area located between latitudes 37°.26' N - 37°.36' N and longitudes 44°.4' D - 44°.26' D for 2 years (2020, 2021) in 2 different periods each year. The average NO3- content in the study area during the spring months of 2020 and 2021 was 3.45 and 3.74 mg kg-1, respectively, and increased slightly in the fall to 4.73 and 4.44 mg kg-1, respectively. The highest PO4-3 content in the study area, where the use of mineral fertilizers in agricultural production is almost non-existent, were detected in Nehil stream (1.99 mg kg-1), irrigation canal (0.78 mg kg-1), and airport drainage (0.56 mg kg-1). According to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards, the NO3- and PO4-3 contents of surface and groundwater in the Yüksekova Basin are below harmful threshold levels. However, NO3- and PO4-3 input from livestock farms and domestic wastewater into water sources can pose significant future challenges to water quality.


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How to Cite

BUDAK, M., GÜNAL, H. ., SIRRI, M., & ACİR, N. (2023). Characterization of Surface and Groundwater Resources in Yüksekova Basin. ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 7(4), 784–797.